Monday, 22 January 2018

Crystal Palace


Post to the west Crystal Palace
Post to the south Anerley



Anerley Park
Penge Common. This area was originally part of Penge Common.
The Croydon Canal. The canal lay to the north of the railway but the route was obliterated by development in the 1870s.  In the 1840s the canal was still in water and used for leisure, activities like boating and angling.
Penge West Station. Opened in 1839 this now lies between Anerley and Sydenham on Southern Rail and is now also part of London Overground, who currently manage the station.  The original Penge station was opened by the London and Croydon Railway in 1839 and was closed again in 1841. The buildings remained while the line was parallel for the atmospheric railway and widened twice. In 1863 it was reopened by the London Brighton and South Coast Railway when the buildings were replaced. The ticket office was on the down platform along with a goods office, and waiting room. It appears to have been renamed Penge Bridges for a while. It was then accessed by a road from Penge High Street and there were sidings and a coal yard. This area has all now been removed and replaced by a large shop and access to the whole station is only from Anerley Park. The building on the up side was burnt down in 2005 and has since been rebuilt.  The white painted house at the far eastern end of the station frontage has been suggested as the gatekeeper’s house from the original London and Croydon railway.

Anerley Road
Road built in 1827 following the enclosure of the common Land sold to SE railway by W.Sanderson
Railway Bridge. This under road bridge carries the line running south from Crystal Palace station.
The Thicket. This pub was closed in 2011 and is now flats. It appears to date from the 1860s
Clarendon Hotel. This was originally the City of London Hotel and stood on the corner with Madeline Road. It was associated with the Crystal Palace Brewery to the rear.

Casteldine Road
Local authority housing built in the 1970s. It appears to be on the line of what was Ridsdale Road.
Anerley Tea Rooms Gardens.  These lay to the west of the canal - a ‘pleasure garden’ with a maze and bandstand built parallel with the canal. It remained until 1868.
The Croydon Canal. This lay between the railway and the tea gardens – probably on the line of what became St. Hugh’s Road – now covered by housing south of Castledine Road. It is said that some signs and relics of the canal can be seen on the west side of the road.
St. Hugh’s Community Centre and playground. When the estate was built residents lobbied for community facilities and it was agreed a community hall should be built on empty land. The St Hugh’s Estate Community Centre was opened in the early 1980’s, plus a small public open space and games area. The residents’ association took on the day-to-day management.
St. James’s Mission church. This stood on the corner of what were St. Hugh’s Road and Castledine Road. It was attached to St. Paul’s church south of Anerley Road.  It survived into at least the late 1960s.

Chalkenden Close
Mural –colourful mural with mysterious lettering

Croydon Canal
The Canal ran from Croydon to the Grand Surrey Canal at New Cross, It opened in 1809 and closed in 1836, the first canal to be abandoned by an Act of Parliament. The canal was bought by the London and Croydon railway whose line closely followed the canal route. The line of the canal through this area thus follows the railway as it runs from Penge West to Anerley Stations.

Crystal Palace
Crystal Palace. A vast edifice of glass and iron. This square covers the south eastern quarter of the park, although not the site of the Palace itself. The rest of the park is in squares to the north and west.
The Crystal Palace was built for the Great Exhibition of 1851 and stood in Hyde Park. After the Exhibition the Palace was dismantled and in 1854 was re-erected mainly through the sponsorship of London, Brighton and South Coast Railway Company. The site had been owned by Leo Schuster a director of the railway, who sold it to the Palace company.  The site had previously been Penge Place in part of the Great North Wood.  It opened in 1854.  It was eventually burnt down in 1936 but the park has remained. In 1951 Gerald Barry, Festival of Britain, director, was asked to advise on the best use of the space by then taken over by the London County Council. He proposed an exhibition centre but the Council only acted on his idea of a sports and training centre.
National Sports Centre. Although a major feature of the park the address is Ledrington Road (below)
Penge Entrance. The main entrance to the pleasure grounds is from this entrance in Thicket Road. It was once a lesser pedestrian entrance, which was enlarged around 1880 to include a small ticket office, and it now leads to a car park.
Anerley Entrance.  This is a pedestrian gate immediately north-east of the railway bridge over Thicket Road
Grand Central Walk. This was 2,660 feet long and 96 feet wide to provide a walk way link up to the palace. It has since been curtailed and goes to the raised terrace of the sports centre and is lined by plane trees.
Cafe. This is adjacent to the Central Walk and was built in the 20th.
Visitor Centre. This is on the site of the lower engine house which pumped water from the tidal lake up to the intermediate lake. A supplementary supply of water came from an adjacent 500 feet deep artesian well
Gorilla. Adjacent to the Central Walk is the statue of the late Gorilla, Guy, an inmate of London Zoo, shown on all fours in smooth marble. It dates from 1961 and is by David Gwynne.
The Lower Lake - boating lake. This is west of the Central Walk. It was built in 1854 as a lower reservoir for Paxton's water displays. The lake contains three islands and Paxton, with Professor David Amsteam, designed them to represent geology. The tail of the lake is crossed by a rustic iron bridge designed by Paxton which also provides a viewing platform.
The Prehistoric Monsters. These are 22 statues of how prehistoric creatures were thought to look. They are in bronze, realistically painted, and life-size. They were made in 1854 in artificial stone and iron rods by Benjamin Waterhouse Hawkins under the direction of Professor R. Owen, who invented the word ‘dinosaur’  The iguanodon was large enough for twenty-one men to dine in its half-completed body.  In 2000 they were renovated and reset in realistic poses around the lake where the islands were created to represent the rocks and plants from these times. There is a numbered trail to explain what each of the figures represents.
Cave with artificial stalactites. This is now sealed.
Palace Farmyard. This is was the site of polo stables.
South Basin. The remains of this feature, by Paxton is used as a pool for flamingos.
Cricket ground and cricket pavilion. This was built in 1960 to replace the original; pavilion, used by W G Grace. The ground was established in 1857 and used for first-class cricket 1864-1906. Initially it was used by Kent County Cricket Club and fro 1900 by the London County Cricket Club. The site was later used for tennis and then football but, as part of the National Sports Centre, cricket has been played on the site since the 1990s.
HMS Crystal Palace , this is an open-sided timber structure with a ship's bell, which commemorates the men of the Royal Navy at the training depot, H.M.S. Victory VI at the Crystal Palace, 1914 – 1918
Experimental Pneumatic Railway. This ran between Sydenham and Penge gates in the 1860's.  The means of propelling the train was pioneered by Webster Rammel.   Rammell persuaded the Crystal Palace Company to let him build a 600 yard tunnel which incorporated a sharp bend and at one point a 1:15 gradient. This was a full size carriage which was basically blown down the tunnel and then, the fan reversed, to pull it back up by a vacuum.  It was opened to the public in 1864 for 6d. for a return journey.   The storey goes that that somewhere beneath Crystal Palace is a 600 yard long rail tunnel, sealed at both ends, is a railway carriage full of skeletons.,
Motor-racing track. The circuit opened in 1927 and the first race was for motorcycles, Racing was halted at the start of the Second World War, but returned between 1954 and 1972.
Maze. This dated from 1866 but fell into disrepair after the Palace fire and was levelled in the 1960s. It has now been recreated by Bromley Council following the original design and using hornbeam hedges.
Crystal Palace Park Farm. This is run as a resource for children by Capel Manor College. It has replaced a Children’s Zoo which had camel rides and an adventure playground
Armoury. This was near the Penge Gate
Rosary and bandstand.  This was a rosary, spiral mound and bandstand from 1852. It is now the site of a walkway from the stadium to the station.
Paxton. Large marble head of Paxton, designer of the palace and the park, on a plinth and signed by W. F. Woodington, sculptor of the Lion Brewery lion, and dated 1869.  It was reinstalled in 1981 at the entrance to the National Recreation Centre.  It is five times life size with a romantic mane of hair.

Crystal Palace Park Road
Built as Penge New Road by the turnpike trust in 1827 and lined with tall red mansions of the 1880s.
Telephone Exchange. This dates from around 1970

Crystal Palace Station Road
Crystal Palace Low Level station. This opened in 1854 and lies between Norwood Junction and Gipsy Hill on Southern Rail  and the terminus of the East London Line of the London Overground.. The London, Brighton & South Coast Railway opened the station to passengers on in time for the opening of Crystal Palace in 1854. This was meant to be a combined terminal and through station with a line to Norwood, provided for construction traffic to Crystal Palace and a special line laid for Crystal Palace traffic run and as a shuttle. East of the line there was a local down line for East Station.  The LBSCR ran trains in 1856 to the West Station, from Wandsworth Common and from Victoria and then onwards to Shortlands and Norwood Junction.  It was a monumental scheme, with an enormous train shed as part of the "Crystal Palace Experience", and so in the grand manner. (it was dismantled in 1905 after Charing Cross Station roof fell down). The booking hall was between the two sets of lines on the bridge above the tracks and with a cast-iron arched roof with ribs in foliage patterns and pavilion roofs on either side. There was a sweeping staircase, on the platform, which has been demolished. There was a chapel in the booking hall and a restaurant on the first floor, stationmaster’s house, and directors’ room.  There was a glazed covered way to the Palace with statues with niches in which to have a rest. After the Second World War it provided a service to the National Sports Centre although many of the 19th features have been removed. In 1986 a new entrance and ticket office were built and in 2009 a considerable amount of work was involved in setting it for the London Overground service, including the re-use of a previously abandoned platform.
Three signal boxes.
Goods and coal yard. This was between the two halves of the station. The Crystal Palace Company’s had their own dock.

Hamlet Road
St.Paul’s Church was built and the parish formed in 1865 as the population of the area expanded.  It was replaced by the current octagonal church in 1978.

Ledrington road
Crystal Palace National Leisure Centre.  This is a large leisure centre with a modern gym, pools, diving boards, climbing walls and tennis courts. It opened in 1964 and is currently run by Better.  It covers the lower slopes south of the palace site and uses he basins of the fountains as sites.
The sports centre building was designed by the London County Council Architects Department under Leslie Martin between 1953–54.  Inside is a central concourse with a complex exposed concrete frame supporting the roof, which has a folded teak lining. The diving pool has, or had, a dramatic reinforced concrete diving platform.

Madeline Road
Crystal Palace Brewery, Ransby and Billing. This seems to have opened in the mid-1870s and to have had a variety of owners until destroyed by Second World War bombing.

Meaford Way
A service road round the rear of recent industrial development. It is mainly built on the site of sidings and coal yard connected too Penge West Station. It lay between the railway and the route of the
Croydon Canal.
Ametek Muirhead Aerospace. This was set up in 1950 as Field Aircraft Services and is a subsidiary of AMETEK Inc. They provide support to the aviation industry with a facility near to London Heathrow Airport is one of the largest independent repair facilities in Europe. It offers sales, repair, overhaul, modification and flight data recorder transcription capability.
Europa. This is a furniture hire business which evolved from a carpet fitting warehouse.

Oakfield Road
Croydon Canal.The canal curved through this area and provided a boundary to rear gardens. In 1970 when the ground beside the railway was dug for development they found a wall of brown clay and rubble infilling on what was the old canal bed.
Public Library. Penge's original library was on the corner with Laurel Grove and opened in 1894. It closed in 1928.  The building here was damaged in the Second World War and has now been replaced with flats.
Oakfield Industrial Estate – originally engineering works and sheet metal works.
2 Royal Oak. This pub closed in 2011.  It probably dated from the 1850s and was originally with the Lion Brewery. The site is now flats.
17-19 a new medical centre here replacing the old (listed) Penge Clinic which included a Relief Station and other outbuildings.
48 General Jackson. Charrington pub demolished in the 1970s.
121 Railway Bell. This pub was demolished in the 1970s – despite its green tiled frontage.  It dated from the 1880s.  The pub sign however remains in place on the roadside.
Oakfield Road School, this was transferred to Penge School Board in 1901 – presumably from Kent. It was a monumental school, but not in the London School Board style. It was latterly Penge County Secondary School.

Orchard Grove
Housing from the 1980s on an area previously railway sidings and unused. The dinosaurs are in the park on the other side of the railway

Penge High Street
Originally known as Beckenham Lane
2 Bridge House pub
Bridge House Theatre. In the upstairs of the pub
Beckenham Wharf – John Scott’s wharf on the canal was just north of the bridge on the west side of the road. It was also known as Penge Common Wharf canal.
Croydon canal. This crossed the road at the same point as the London to Croydon railway.   The crossing included a swing bridge.  .
Railway Bridge. This ornamental bridge of 1854 carries the line to Crystal Palace Station. It has three segmental arches with ornamental panelled brickwork.
Railway Bridge. The London and Croydon railway originally crossed the High Street by a level crossing and trains would have waited while the crossing gates were opened for them. After the station closed in 1841, the level crossing was converted to a bridge. The road had to be lowered to provide headroom.
Penge West Station. The original entrance to the station was on the High Street. Evidence of this can be seen in the brickwork below the bridge. On re-opening it was first called Penge Bridges.

Thicket Road
Railway Bridge.  This was built in. 1854 and his skew with an ornate perforated parapet.

Trenholme Close
Croydon Canal. Properties in the Close follow the alignment of the canal which was to the right of Trenholme Terrace and ran towards Castledine Road

Versailles Road
Anerley School for Deaf Boys.  Founded in 1902 to each a ‘pure form of oralism’. Boys were taught bakery, shoe mending, carpentry and so on. The school closed 1956 on conversion to a school for ‘maladjusted children’.  As Anerley School for Boys it was a ‘Community Special School’. This has closed and the site is now flats.

Waldegrave Road
Church, - this is now flats. It was built as the New Church (Swedenborgian). The architect was W.E. Henley, manager of the Concrete Building Company and is built in pitted concrete, now coloured pink. In the Second World War the building was damaged by a rocket attack. The building was finally sold in 198.

Woodbine Grove
Community Vision Nursery

Sources
Beckenham History. Web site
Bygone Kent 
Canals from Croydon to Camberwell,
Chelsea Speleological Society. Newsletter
Cinema Theatres Association. Newsletter
Clunn.  The Face of London
Crystal Palace Park Heritage and Nature Norwood Trail
Darke. The Monument Guide
GLIAS Newsletter
Green Chain Walk., leaflet
Green. Around Dulwich 
Forbears. Web site
Headley & Meulenkamp. Follies, Grottoes and Garden Buildings
Industrial Archaeology Review
Laurie. Beneath the City Streets  
London Borough of Bromley. Web site
Lost Pubs Project. Web site
Norwood Society. Web site
Parks and Gardens. Web site
Pevsner. West Kent
Pevsner and Cherry, South London
Pub History. Web site
Remnants of the Croydon Canal. Web site
South East London Industrial Archaeology
Thames Basin Archaeology of Industry. Report
Thorne. Old and New South London
Wagstaff and Pullen. Beckenham. An Anthology of Local History
Warwick. The Phoenix Suburb 

Friday, 19 January 2018

Croxley


Post to the south Croxley Hall
Post to the west Croxley Green
Post to the east Croxley Green


Barton Way
Named for Charles-Barton Smith, Manager at the Dickinson Mill, Councillor and Chairman of the Rickmansworth Urban District Council.
Croxley Green Library. This is now a self service library. It originally opened in 1966 on the site of cottages, but was burnt down in 1992. It was rebuilt in 1994.
British Red Cross.  Equipment loan centre and social centre.
Barton Way Play Area. Adventure playground, lots of climbing. This is part of a larger recreation area opened when the housing was built in the 1930s

Community Way
Croxley Green Parish Council Offices. Very small.
Community Club. Private not for profit organisation
Allotments

Dickinson Avenue
Company housing built for Dickinson workers from the 1890s in what had previously been called Long Row.

Dickinson Square
Company housing built for Dickinson workers and designed by George Hubbard. It was built on what had been called Milestone Field, itself part of the Common Moor.
Gardens with what may have been a bandstand provided by Dickinson. This is a rectangular green, with flowerbeds, and bordered by coniferous and deciduous trees fenced with iron railings,
5 was the first shop of Croxley Co-operative Society in 1888

Dulwich Way
Yorke Mead School.. This primary school was opened in 1974

Fuller Way
Explore Church. Fuller Way Church. This belongs to the Christian Fellowship and was built originally as an iron church after the Second World War, replaced by the current building in 1959.

Harvey Road
Harvey Road Junior School. Using some temporary buildings from 1938. As Croxley Green expanded rapidly in the late 1930s new families needed school places and two original schools were heavily overcrowded. Hertfordshire County Council had designated a site for a school and in 1938 a school was built with seven ‘temporary’ wooden huts for classrooms.  Boys and girls of senior age shared these huts and eventually transferred to the new Durrants Secondary Modern School.  Harvey Road then opened as a Junior Mixed School in 1939. The temporary classrooms were used for evacuees. A dining room was not added until after the war and 1956 four additional classrooms and a library were also added.

Long  Valley Wood
Woodland managed by the parish council.

Malvern Way
St.Oswald's Church.  As the population of Croxley Green grew in the 1930’s the vicar of All Saints’ Church, though that another church hall was needed.  A site in Malvern Way was thus purchased in 1936. With local fund raising and commitment the hall was opened in 1937 as a church and for social events. In 1940 it became a school for evacuee children however its use as a focus for the local community increased.  In 1946 it became more independent and adjacent land was bought for a new church. A font and choir stalls were acquired from redundant churches – some from the Fisherman’s Church in Hastings. Boundaries were set for a new church and a new parsonage house was acquired.  What was built was a new hall and the existing hall was converted into a new church which opened in 1962. A bell was given from the chapel of Shrodells Hospital – but it is now in Watford Museum. Shaftesbury Court, sheltered housing was built on spare land adjacent to the church.
Malvern Way School. This opened in 1949

New Road
Built as part of the earliest development of the area in the 19th and named New Road in 1898. It had originally been a cart track called Cow Lane.
216 Fox and Hounds. Built in the  mid 19th this is now a Greene King house. Originally water was from a well at the back and there was a skittle alley upstairs
Rose Pub. This dated from the 1867. The site is now flats
Dickinson Institute. In 1895 the Dickinson company agreed to fund an institute for workers. A cottage at 32 Milestone Field was converted and named The Dickinson Institute, at first only for use by men. In 1896 a new hall – a ‘tin tabernacle’ - was built adjacent to it including a stage and a kitchen. The Church Lads Brigade was based there as well as the Cricket and Rifle club. There were many sorts of classes and a library. In 1904 another new building fronted onto New Road.  In the Great War from 1916 to 1919 it was used as a Voluntary Aid Department convalescent home for wounded soldiers. From 1926 it was known as the Guild House – for the in-house union. In the Second World War it was used as a school for evacuees. In 1965 it was burnt down and has been replaced by The Guildhouse Flats.
Methodist Chapel. In 1866 a Mr Pierce established a Methodist Society in his own house. In 1868 a Methodist chapel was opened. A schoolroom was added in 1892 and a new chapel also built and opened the following year. A new hall was added at the back in the 1960s.

Watford Road
This was the original road through the area and part of the Hatfield to Reading Turnpike.
Croxley Station.  This is described as part of the ‘underground railway’ but it in fact a surface rail line, albeit managed by London Underground. Opened in 1925 it now lies between Moor Park and Watford on the Metropolitan Line. The Metropolitan became interested in building a station in Watford near the new Cassiobury Park in 1912. This was to leave their existing line near Croxley Hall Farm and an intermediate station was proposed at Croxley Green. However the Great War led to the postponement of the line and the Metropolitan became part of a committee with the London and North Eastern Railway. Work on the line began in the early 1920s. The station was to be called Croxley Green despite an existing station with the same name to the east. At the site for the new station a row of cottages were demolished for this purpose. There were many delays and arguments over ownership as the line passed through land subject to current developments. At Croxley Green Station a signal box was planned with the latest type of automatic electric signalling system as well as a Goods yard where cola could be stored.  The station opened in 1925 designed by the Met's architect, Charles W Clark in an Arts and Crafts vernacular style, in keeping with Metroland theme. It was managed by the Watford Joint Railway Committee with some trains worked by the Metropolitan and others by the London and North Eastern Railway. In 1933 the Metropolitan Railway became part of the London Transport Passenger Board and in 1949 this station was renamed Croxley because of confusion with the other station (which has since vanished).
Red House. Greene King pub dating from 1870
19 Duke of York pub. Now replaced by Dukes Place

Sources
Croxley Green History. Web site
Croxley Green Methodist Church. Web site
Croxley Green Parish Council. Web site
Explore Church. Web site
Evans. The Endless Web
Fox and Hounds. Web site
Greenman. A History of Croxley Green through its Street Names
Harvey Road School. Web site
Hertfordshire County Council. Web site
Malvern Road School. Web site
St.Oswald’s Church. Web site
Three Rivers District Council. Web site
York Mead School. Web site

Thursday, 18 January 2018

Crofton Park


Post to the north Brockley
Post to the west Honor Oak
Post to the east Ladywell


Beecroft Road
Beecroft Garden Primary School. The school was opened in 1894 as Brockley Road School. It was built on land previously owned by Christ’s Hospital. The school building was badly damaged in the Second World War by a V1 rocket and was demolished. It reopened as Brockley Primary School in 1951. Brockley Primary School was demolished in 2012 and again rebuilt now as Beecroft Garden Primary School.

Brockley Cemetery
This square covers only the south west section of the cemetery. The rest is in squares to the north and east.
Brockley Cemetery is joined to Ladywell Cemetery and they were  opened within one month of each other in 1858 and are sited on adjacent plots of previously open land. Until 1948, they were completely separate, being divided by a wall. Brockley Cemetery, formerly Deptford Cemetery, lies to the west. In the area covered here there were once two chapels – Church of England and Dissenters – which are now demolished. The most south west area was dedicated as a burial area for Roman Catholics, with a mortuary chapel, also now demolished.
War Memorial. This consists of a curtain wall positioned behind the memorial Column. There are the names rank and date of death of one-hundred-and-sixty-five soldiers inscribed on its panels. A separate panel gives the names of those remembered from the Second World War buried elsewhere in the cemetery.

Brockley Footpath
The footpath runs from Brockley to Nunhead. This easternmost section starts from Brockley Road, originally alongside the Brockley Jack, and running up what is now Cypress Gardens, crosses Buckland Road to the railway footbridge on Eddystone Road.

Brockley Grove
This is an old lane, as Brockley Lane running between Brockley and Ladywell.
Crofton Park Baptist Church. In 1900 a new Sunday school began in Crofton Park. They bought land from Joy Farm and by 1909 the foundation stone was laid for a church building. Soon they converted the adjoining farm building into a new sanctuary. As housing estates were built around the site In the 1930s the church expanded. A new church was planned for 1960.
Brockley Grove Service Centre. Recycling point.
Brockley Hall. This stood on the corner with Brockley Road. In the mid-19th it was occupied by the Noakes family who were brewers  in Bermondsey, but also farmed here. The house was demolished in 1931 after Maude Noakes had died. Brockley Hall Road, Bearsted Rise, Horsmonden Road and Sevenoaks Road were built over the grounds.

Brockley Mews
Housing built on the site of Brockley Cottages.  In the 1980s there was said to be a ruined cottage on this site and there had once been one of the other side of Brockley Way. It is thought these were railway cottages built for signalmen

Brockley Rise
Stillness Junior School.  Formerly Stillness Road School, this is a Bailey school from 1905 built by the London School Board. It has impressive gateways.  There was a bad fire here in 2010.
Kings College Sports Ground. Money  raised from the sale of a ground in Surrey helped fund a replacement clubhouse in 2013. This was previously Guy’s Hospital Atheletic ground and had been since the 1890s..  Stillness Junior and Infant Schools use the ground on a regular basis. T he ground is also is home to Guy’s Rugby club and King’s and Alleyn’s Hockey club. The Guys Rugby Club claims to be the oldest in the world.

Brockley Road
Christ’s Hospital property marker. This is an iron post in the hedge opposite the cemetery entrance. Dated 1807.
Crofton Park Station. Opened in 1892 this lies between Catford and Nunhead stations on South Eastern Trains  as part on the 'Catford Loop' West Hampstead Thameslink to Sevenoaks route, originally an alternative route for the Chatham line between Brixton and Shortlands..  Crofton Park appears to be an entirely made up name invented for this station, which is actually in Brockley. It was opened by the London, Chatham and Dover railway in 1892 and is the most traditional of all the stations along the Loop. It is a mirror image of Bellingham Station although here the fa├žade is London-facing. The station building is at an angle to the platforms which led to a long footbridge and there was no goods yard here. However this station has changed little since its earliest days, leaving it as the Catford Loop’s most architecturally complete site. In 1945 a neary V2 caused a fire here. There were no casualties but a train lost its windows as it was passing through the station
Signal Box. There was a Saxby & Farmer cabin at the country end of the up platform. This was demolished in 1959.
Crofton Park Library . This was opened in 1905  funded by Scottish American industrialist and philanthropist Andrew Carnegie The architect was Alfred L Guy,. It is part of Lewisham Library Service but is volunteer run by Eco Communities. over the door is the motto “Salus Populi Suprema Lex” from the crest of the Metropolitan Borough of Lewisham .
Rivoli Ballroom – built as the Crofton Park Picture Palace in 1913 and designed by Henley Attwater with a simple barrel-vaulted auditorium.  In 1918 was re-named Crofton Park Cinema and by 1931 it had been re-named Rivoli Cinema.  It remained an Independently operated and owned cinema and closed in 1957. It re-opened in 1959 as the Rivoli Ballroom and remains open as this. It has a sprung maple dance floor. The interior and exterior fittings have the same, 1950's and 1960's look and it is used as a TV and film location
Brockley Green. This extended from the junction with Brockley Grove – and the traffic island which seems to be the last remains of it – until the junction with Brockley Rise to the south.  Brockley Hall stood on the junction with Brockley Grove.
Toilets.  A toilet block in the centre of the road designed by H.R.Watt has now been converted to an esatate agent’s offices.  It is said to be on the site of the farm pond, hence the curve in the road.
Brockley Castle.  The predecessor pub to the Brockley Jack may have been called the Castle Inn.  It was a wooden hostelry building alongside the current pub and alongside Brockley Green and described in the Enclosures Award of 1810.  The pub sign was said to have been painted on a ‘mammoth bone’ or a whalebone and that the pub was named after Jack Cade or a highwayman.  It was demolished for the new pub in 1898.
410 Brockley Jack pub.  The pub was rebuilt in 1898 by the brewers Noakes. High up on the south gable are the words “Noakes Entire” – referring to a mix of beers. At the front there is a foundation laid by Wickham Noakes and on the top front gable is a representation of the whale bone sign from the original pub. . It  is now a Greene King house. It is said that the function room upstairs once housed the largest 6- lane Scalextric track in South-East London, and regular 24-hour "Le Mans" sessions were held   the rear When function room has been used for various things, such as a dance hall, a snooker room and a music venue but is now a small theatre founded in 1994 and providing a regular professional programme.
St. Hilda. Brockley was originally in Lewisham parish but as the area was developed in the late 19th it was seen that a new parish needed to be created and a church provided.  A temporary church was opened in 1900 and plans for a permanent church drawn up and funds raised, as well as funding for fixtures and fittings, which included an organ. It was designed by Greenaway & Newberry, in ‘Arts and Crafts Gothic’.  There is a stunted tower with an octagonal parapet decorated with brick and stone chequer work.
Vicarage. This was built on an adjacent site to the church. It was destroyed in 1944 bombing and rebuilt in 1951.
War Memorial. This is in the churchyard and is a granite celtic cross surmounting two plinths with names of dead on base. It was designed by Greenway and Newberry and is inscribed “To the glory of god and in loving memory of those from this parish who have laid down their lives in the great war A.D. 1914-1919. Their name liveth for evermore.”  It was unveiled in by General Sir Ian Hamilton
Brockley Farm. This was on Brockley Road about half way between Brockley Jack and Brockley Rise. The farmhouse was a16th house called Forest Place. It was demolished in 1870.
Brockley Green Farm. This belonged to Christ’s Hospital was purchased by the London and Croydon Railway in 1836.

Brockley Way
Brockley Way continues the Brockley Footpath towards Nunhead.  It is thought that it would have crossed the Croydon Canal here – the high embankments and deep cutting may indicate a canal origin –although there is some discussion on the actual line of the canal
Croydon Canal. It is thought that this crossing maybe the site of Lock 22.
Crematorium Gates

Courtrai Road
This dead end road once led to a bridge over the canal and railway and was then called Dead Lane. It was gone by 1914.
8a Celestial Church of Christ, Mercyland Parish

Crofton Park Road
Follows the line of an old lane.
St.Andrew's Works, Amplion radios . this was on the site of what is now Ladywell Heights. This was Alfred Graham and Co. making loud speakers for wirelesses. It appears that a plan to build a factory here by prestigious Wallis Gilbert, was never carried out. In the 1950s the site is described as a ‘cooperage’ and by the 1960s a ‘depository’.

Croftongate Way
New housing on the site of allotments

Croydon Canal
The canal ran north-south through this area. It opened in 1809 from Croydon and joined the Surrey Canal at New Cross. It was never a success and closed in 1836. The London & Croydon Railway Company bought it and used some of the route for their line. Although the railway built on this section there is some dispute about the actual line of the canal and the sites of a number of locks and, also, what, if anything, remains of it

Cyprus Gardens
New housing to the rear of the Brockley Jack and on the line of the Brockley footpath.

Eddystone Road
39-43  Beaufoy-Roberts Hall.  Honor Oak and Brockley British Legion Hall. It is however a social club and hired out for events.
Bridge over the railway which carries the Brockley footpath, a water main taking water to the reservoir in Oxleas Wood is carried under the bridge

Roscastle Road
Playground

Stondon Park
22 Lewisham Council / Labour Party plaque to Jim O’Connell, 1852-1929, 'Irish socialist and author of The Red Flag'. He was Secretary of the Workmen’s Legal Friendly Society, and lived here 1915-29
1 Estate agent’s shop with clock outside.  This is now a veterinary practice

Turnham Road
Honor Oak Community Centre. The Honor Oak Community Association manages the Centre and provides facilities and activities as well as room hire, etc.

Sources
Barton. London’s Lost Rivers
Beecroft Gardens Primary School. Web site
Brockley Central. Blog. Web site.
Canals from Croydon to Camberwell
Cinema Treasures. Web site.
Clunn. The Face of London
Crofton Park Baptist Church. Web site
Friends of Brockley and Ladywell Cemeteries. Web site
Hidden London. Web site
South London Club. Blog. Web site
Ideal Homes. Web site
Kent Rail. Web site
Kings College. Web site
Lewisham Local History Journal
London Borough of Lewisham. Web site
London Borough of Southwark. Web site
Monk. Brockley
Skinner. Form and Fancy
Spurgeon. Discover Deptford and Lewisham
Stillness Primary School. Web site
Sydenham Forum. Web site
St.Hilda’s. Web site
Walking London One Post Code at a time. Blog. Web site
White. Watering Places in Lewisham
Wikipedia. As appropriate. Web site

Wednesday, 17 January 2018

Cricklewood

Anson Road
This area was owned by All Souls College, Oxford and in 1900, housing was built here.
Trinity Court. This is the ex-Baptist Church. It was designed by Arthur Keen in the style of Italian Byzantine style in red and yellow brick.
Anson Primary School. The school was built after the Second World War.
61 St Gabriel’s Hall.  After the Second World War this was sold to the local council for community use. It was later sold the building to the Dar Al-Islam Foundation.
61 Dar Al Islam Foundation. Shia Muslim Mosque

Ashford Road
Imperial Dry Plate Works. In 1871 Richard Maddox had discovered a way of coating photographic plates so they could be kept until needed rather than processed straight immediately. Joseph Acworth became interested in these and worked at the Britannia Dry Plate Co. in Ilford then did a PhD in Germany. He experimented and then set up the Imperial Dry Plate Company in a factory built by George Furness. The plates sold well and the factory had to be enlarged several times. In 1917 Acworth sold out to Ilford and retired. The Imperial factory, by then part of Ilford, was again expanded in the 1940s but the site is now flats,
60 Ashford Place. Community resource building . In 1983 a group of local people wanted to help the homeless. With the help of St.Agnes church they set up Cricklewood Homeless Concern. They were offered this building and with a team of volunteers began supporting the growing number of homeless men on the streets and eventually employed specialist staff. The site was previously a youth club –a Jewish Youth Club in the 1950s, and one attached to St. Agnes Church later.

Chichele Road
Thomas Chichele was Archbishop of Canterbury to whom much of this land was transferred in 1438. He founded All Souls College and gave the land in this area to them.
St Gabriel's Church Hall. The hall was originally the building in Anson Road which is now a mosque. The hall is now the building next to it in Chichele Road.
Cricklewood Congregational Church and Memorial Hall opened in 1893. The church was built in 1901 by William Wallis with schools in the basement, This is now a mosque
Mosque and Islamic Centre of Brent. Sufi – Bareilvi mosque. In 1976 the building was bought by the local community. restorations and alterations took place there was an official opening in 2005.  The spire was changed into a minaret with a dome on the top and two smaller green domes were added. In the basement is used a community and sports hall. There are also facilities for women, and office space.

Cricklewood Broadway 
This is a section of the A5, the London Holyhead Trunk Road which began at Marble Arch. It is also a section of the Romaniter II  route which later took the Anglo-Saxon name of Watling Street. This stretch became established as a shopping centre in the 19th.
Coronation Memorial Clock.  This was erected on the corner with Anson Road in 1912 to commemorate the Coronation of George V.
122 Nodes Funeral Service. The firm dates from 1828. High on the gable is a painted sign for the company
135 The Slade. The name for what was an 18th farm appears to come from a brook which rises in this area. In the late 19th this appears to be an estate concerned with horses, there was a riding school there and polo was played at a private club here in 1892.  A Mr. Wimbush had converted fields into livery stables and built a smithy. In 1918 it was leased by Whitlock’s Motors and Lawton Goodman Ltd.
135 Whitlock Motors. Were coach builders and motor engineers with a presiiguous clientele, based in Chiswick High Road but had failed. William Goodman Lawton, also a coach builder and engineer, was to use the Whitlock marquee. Ge set up a manufacruring base at the Slade in 1913.  He was to build ambulances there for wartime use along with work for De Havilland and Airco.After the war they concentrated on vehicles with luxury coachwork and fittings. From the late 1930s however they made commercial vehicles – more ambulances along with ice cream vans, mobile shops etc. The works closed in 1991 when their lease expired. The works was demolished and the site is now housing.
152 Crown Hotel.  By the 1750s the Crown was a coaching inn with some bare knuckle fighting on the side. It is now the Clayton Crown, previously the Moran Crown.. Flamboyant building with  lots of terracotta ornament and four cast-iron lamp standards in front. It is a substantial pub set back from the road and was the  terminus for early  bus routes. It was rebuilt in 1889 by Shoebridge & Rising  for Cannon Brewery. It is now part of a large modern hotel which stands adjacent to it.
Smiths Crisps.  Two garages behind the pub were used by Frank Smith whose wife sliced and fried the potatoes, while he bagged them up and sold them to local pubs. Within seven years they had a full time staff of 12. In 1927 they moved to Brentford.
194 Galtymore. Irish dance hall. This included a (Roller) Skating rink and three dance halls, Closed in 2008 and now demolished.
Palace Cinema. This was adjacent to the skating rink and opened around 1911.  It closed in 1939, and never re-opened.
Rock Halls Lodge. 18th house
200 Beacon Bingo. This is a modern purpose-built venue with facilities for over 2,700 players.
F.O.C. Caravan Centre. This was present in the 1950s and appears to have been replaced by Beacon Bingo
222 Telephone Exchange. 1929-30.  In the style of the Office of Works between the wars with ‘colossal bulk. Carved stone keystones to some of the first-floor windows. It serves Cricklewood, Dollis Hill, Dudden Hill, Mapesbury and Neasden nearby, and had DOLlis Hill and GLAdstone numbers until the late 1960s. It now has 0208-450 and 452 xxxx numbers, plus some Outer London allocated numbers. Mobile phone aerials on the roof
245 Sorting Office from 1905. This is now Arrow Electrical store.
245-7 W. J. Fowler & Son, printers, were founded here in 1898. “Railway printing experts”. Fowlers had a particular interest in tramways and railways and published a number of magazines and journals on those subjects.
Cricklewood House

Cricklewood Lane
This was previously Child’s Hill Lane
3 The Queen’s Hall Cinema was opened in 1920. It was operated by Catwood Cinemas Ltd and replaced Rock Hall House. The entrance was set within a low colonnade, with shop units on each side. It was taken over by Denman/Gaumont British Theatres in 1928, and was refurbished, with a Christie 2Manual/8Ranks organ installed. It was re-named Gaumont in 1949, and CinemaScope was fitted in 1955. It was closed by the Rank Organisation in 1960 and demolished. a supermarket was built on the site, first a KwikSave, then Somerfield and by 2017 a Co-op.
Congregational chapel. This is said to have been an iron mission chapel opened in 1885. The congregation moved to a purpose built church in 1893.
Railway Bridge. This  carries the Midland Main Line railway over Cricklewood Lane. Along the side walls is written ‘CRICKLEWOOD’ in large letters.
Cricklewood Station.  Opened in 1870 two years after the line was opened by the Midland Railway, it now lies between West Hampstead and Hendon on Thameslink.  Trains going to St.Pancras pass through without stopping.  It was built by J.E.Hall and first called Child’s Hill and Cricklewood. In 1906 the Station offices were rebuilt in red brick and terra cotta with a bold chimney and Art Nouveau features. There was also a station masters’ house and a covered footbridge. It was originally sited to service a branch line to Acton, which was later closed closed and station renamed ‘Cricklewood’ in 1903. In 1904 an up local line was installed through the station with a new platform and a down local line a year later. The original buildings were demolished and a subway was installed along with a booking office in Cricklewood Lane.  Only the booking office is now used and ‘Station house’
Down sidings. These were west of the station and were used for marshalling express goods traffic. This is now an area of superstores with an access road from Cricklewood Lane.
Express Dairy depot and bottling plant. This opened in the 19th and lay to the north and east of the station. Still extant in the 1980s.

Depot Approach
Caravan Depot. This was on the site now covered by the Bingo hall.
The road originally appears to have gone to the railway sidings and coal yards.

Hovenden Road
Mapesbury Dell. This is a small park and garden administered by local residents since 2000.  It was previously Hovenden Road Play area and as such neglected.

Howard Road
Mosque. Back entrance to the building in Chichele Road

Kara Way
Kara Way Playground. Small park with play and sports facilities
Timber Yard

Mora Road
Mora Road Primary and Infants School. The school dates from 1907.

Oaklands Road
Theme Traders Production Village. This is an ‘event management’ organisation.
Chromoloid Works. They were platers using chromium or cadmium. Present in the 1930s.
99 Razvite.  This was a French safety razor manufacturing company. The made FixaVite Cosmetics and Toilet Preparations connected with shaving, 1940s.
Industrial Engineering Ltd. They were here in the 1920s and made  Flexolac a plastic roofing compound – probably using asbestos.
Moss and Woodd. In 1907 they were here as concessionaires’ for Orion lorries constructed by Zurich based Automobilfabrik Orion Actien Gesellschaft
The Ivanhoe Motor Co., Made Mercury cars 24 h.p driven by four-cylinder engines. Here in 1907.
Actinorae Works. Aircraft Equipment Co. Ltd , 1918. This was owned by a Mr. Holt
Sign factory.  This appears to be a roof sign business in the 1920s run by a Sir.A.McBain

Sheldon Road
H. C. Shepherd & Co., Ltd.,  manufacturing aircraft and motor jigs, press tools, etc..

Sneyd Road
Cricklewood Baptist Church. This dates from 1907. In 1930, a church hall was added and is now used as the church because the . main church building was sold to property developers in 1990, and is now flats.

St.Michaels Avenue
St. Michael's church. Designed 1908 by John Samuel Alder; built 1909-10 in Limestone and Bath stone. It was founded by the London Diocesan Home Mission 1907 and the parish formed from St. Gabriel's. The benefice suspended because of friction between the vicar and the parishioners 1949-51. The church has been for sale and is signed now as “St Michaels Church of Jesus Christ (Apostolic)”
Pumping station. (in the square to the west)

Walm Lane
Old lane called Warne Lane in the 16th.
 St Gabriel. Built 1896-1903 by W. Bassett Smith and R.P. Day. In 1891, an iron church was erected on the area where St Gabriel's now stands. The current church was built alongside. The current vicar ia a member of the General Syod and has links to the New Wiune movemtn,
War Memorial. This is to the dead of the Great War designed by John Coates Carter FRIBA
131-5 United Synagogue.  In 1928 a house at 137 was registered for worship, and in 1931 Cricklewood synagogue, was built next door at. 131-5. Designed by Cecil J Eprile. It was converted into flats in 1989. The congregation moved into an adjoining hall

Sources
Brent Mosque. Web site
British History online. Web site
Cinema Treasures. Web site
Clunn. The Face of London
Cricklewood Baptist Church. Web site
Cricklewood Homeless Concern. Web site
Field. London Place Names
Goslin and Connor. St Pancras to St.Albans
GLIAS  Newsletter
Grace’s Guide. Web site
Kilburn and Willesden History Blog. Web site
London Borough of Barnet. Web site
London Borough of Brent. Web site
London Encyclopaedia,
London’s Industrial Archaeology
Londonist. Blog. Web site
London Railway Record.
McCarthy. London. North of the Thames
Middlesex Churches
Nairn. Nairn’s London
Pevsner and Cherry.  London North
Stevenson. Middlesex
St. Gabriel’s Church. Web site
Wikipedia. As appropriate. Web site

Sunday, 14 January 2018

Addington Hills


Post to the north Shirley


Addington Hills
Addington Hills. This was once called Pripledeane  meaning 'gravel valley', In 1874 the Croydon Board of Health purchased an initial area, and in 1903 added the part near Shirley was added in 1903, the Birch wood between Oaks Road and Coombe Lane was a gift from Frank Lloyd of Coombe Park and finally the Pine woods in the south east corner were added in 1919 The park rises from Oaks Road to a plateau of Blackheath Pebbles 460 feet above sea level. It is colonized by heather with groups of pines and other trees. Int he north west are steep valleys covered in Birch and Oak.  Springs which once marked the junction of the Blackheath and Woolwich beds have disappeared. Some areas of the park were excavated for gravel in the 19th and earlier. In 1963 a Viewing Platform was given by Alderman Basil Monk as a memorial to Croydon's Millenary. There are inscriptions and pointers to places of interest.
Addington Reservoir. This is on south side of the Hills and was built in 1888 for Croydon Corporation Water Works.. At first the Valve House was open to the public as a cafe with a flat above, But in 1937 typhoid was traced here and the cafe was closed.

Badgers Hole
This was originally a temporary settlement with cottages built in what were extensive pits. There are said to be caverns here. A pub here may have been the ‘Badger Inn”

Bishops Walk
Private road of posh houses leading to Addington Palace.

Coombe Lane
Coombe Lane Tram stop. 1998 .Between Gravel Hill and Lloyd Park on Croydon Tramlink
Lamb Inn. This pub was in the area before the mid-19th.  According to tradition was the site of a battle between smugglers and revenue officers.

Oaks Road
Broadcombe was the old name for the tract of land alongside Oaks Road and at the foot of Addington Hills.
Hither Sheep House Field lay to the east of Oaks Lane. 27 depressions were found in a plot locally called Lyme Pitts

Sandpits Road
This is an area of sandpits lying south and east along the road.  They may have been worked, at least latterly by the Bennett family who had a broom making business here, and latterly a horticultural establishment.
Bungalow cottages from the 1860s
Footpath into Pinewoods

Shirley Hills Road
5 mission church of 1873. The building was also used as an infants school in the 1890s. This is now a house called ‘The Fold’.

Sunken Lane
Water tower.  This is adjacent to the tram stop and has a series of transmission devices attached.

Upper Shirley Road
Brewery. Shirley Brewery was owned by Ludlam and Grant until it was taken over 1882 by Nathanial Page. Later  in 1892 it was taken over again and the name was later used for the Croydon Brewery
152 Sandrock Hotel. This was built in 1867 on the corner of the sandpits., It is said to be name after a  rock nearby on which a preacher stood to conduct services. In 1878 there were livery and bait stables, and a farm. The licensee put swings in the grounds and offered donkey rides following arrangements with gypsies’. He also offered donkey rides in his garden. Visitors from London drank too much, danced and sang, courted more than one lady at a time, wore false noses, exchanged head-gear with those of the opposite sex, and made remarks to passers-by. It was until recently a Charrington house.

Sources
Chelsea Speleological Society. Newsletter
Clunn. The Face of London
Croydon. Guide
Croydon Natural History & Scientific Society, Bulletin
London Borough of Croydon. Web site
Gent. Croydon Past.
London Footprints. Web site
Penguin. Surrey 
Pevsner and Cherry. South London, 
Smyth, Citywildspace, 
Stewart, Croydon History in Field and Street Names
Wealden Cave and Mine Archive. Web site.

Friday, 12 January 2018

Claygate


Post to the east Claygate


Beaconsfield Road
20 this appears to have been built by Joseph Ellis, an industrialist and ‘ironmaster’ with an interest in many coal companies in the 19th   and early 20th.  From 1908 it was the offices of the Associated British Machine Tool Makers. It is now residential.

Blakeden Road
Named for Cuthbert Blakeden, Henry VIII’s Serjeant-of-the-Confectionary and owner of the manor.
Built since the 1960s on the site of Elm Gardens Nurseries.  It had earlier been 'Capel Field’ and used by the Leveret Cricket Club, and later Elm Nurseries.

Church Road
Claygate Recreation Ground. The land was taken over by Esher Council in the 1920s. It is now managed by the Claygate Recreation Ground Trust. It is used by the Claygate Cricket Club, Claygate Royals Football Club & The Pavilion Cafe
Holy Trinity Church. This was built in 1840 on former common land and was from the first a parish church. It has been enlarged and in 1999 a new church hall and vicarage were built. Inside is a memorial to men who died in the Second World War.
Churchyard. The wrought-iron gates to the churchyard date from 1959 as a memorial to members of the Rossiter family including a son killed in action in 1944. The gates were made locally at The Forge in Common Road.
War Memorial. This is in the churchyard and was unveiled in 1921 to commemorate Claygate men who died in the Great War. It is a stone cross with a tapering shaft on a stone plinth with four tablets bearing names.
National School. Until 1838 children attended a school in a shed. In 1838 Claygate's elementary school was opened and managed by the Church of England and the National Society. The school room was rebuilt in 1866 but was still too small. It closed in 1881 but the premises continued to be used as a church hall.  It was demolished in 1964 and replaced
Claygate Village Hall. This was built in 1958 on land bought in 1954 following local fund raising. There have been additions since. It is managed by the Village Hall Association which is made up of users.
Arbrook Hall. Hall owned by the Catholic church in its own grounds.  It was designed by J McCormack in 1965 and used by a nursery school and a youth club

Claremont Road
Railway Bridge. Built by the estate developers in the early 20th

Claygate Common
This was enclosed in 1838 and acquired by Esher Council in 1922. A local nature reserve with a wooded area, Birds seen include kestrel, sparrowhawk and green woodpecker.
Golf Course. This was a nine hole course built in the late 19th. It closed in 1914.

Coverts Road
Housing built from 1885 to the outbreak of World War I was located here. It was originally Covers Road.
Ebenezer Baptist Chapel. From around 1850 residents gathered in a private house, and then a barn as Strict and Particular Baptists. In 1860 they built a chapel here named Ebenezer Strict Baptist Chapel. by 1976 it was in disrepair and unsafe and the congregation joined with another.

Elm Road
Elm Road School. This built by the Thames Ditton and Claygate School Board to replace the National School and opened in 1886. From 1903 the school was managed by Surrey County Council and from 1940 took only children under 11 becoming Claygate County Primary School and later Claygate County Junior Mixed School. It was bombed in 1941 and damaged by a rocket bomb in 1944. The buildings were also used as a British Restaurant. It closed in 1987 and Claygate Youth Club has leased the building since.
Claygate Centre for the Community. Buildings with facilities for the old and/or disabled.

Fee Farm Road
Fee Farm lay between Causeway and Coverts Road. In 1920 it was sold to builders who created the road and built houses
Fee Farm Farmhouse. This is a 17th house with late 18th additions. It is timber framed and clad in brick.

Fitzalan Road
Upper School of Rowan Hill opened here in 1944.

Foley Road
Claygate Primary School. This is on the site of a The Firs, a house fronting onto Hare Lane purchased in 1971. The school had a hall and four classrooms when it opened in 1973. In 1976 it became a County Middle School for children between 8 and 12 and is now a Primary School.

Gordon Road
Newlands College was a ‘preparatory’ school for boys and girls was founded in 1927. It moved to 'Elmside' in 1938. In 1973 the lease expired and the school was closed. Elmside was then demolished and housing built on n the site.
Rowan ‘Preparatory’ School for Girls was founded in 1936 with seven pupils at Rowan Brae. The Lower and Middle Schools remain here.

Hare Lane
Swedenborgian Church .This was built on a field belonging to Titts Farm. This was the New Jerusalem Church built in 1909 and owned by Charles Higby, a builder. In the Second World War it was used as an ARP Wardens’ Centre, and then until 1949, as a Surrey County Library,
45 First Church of Christ, Scientist, Claygate and Esher. The site was originally a Swedenborgian church which was purchased in 1951 by the Christian Scientists and dedicated as a church in 1957. In 1959 a new church was built with a reading room. The architect was Gilbert Williams.
Telephone exchange
106 Foley Hotel. This is named for the local Foley family and has been a Young’s pub since the 1880s. It claims to date from the 1780s
The Orchard. This was originally a farmhouse from the 18th -1723 is inscribed on a barn in its grounds. Fire Mark J74J issued in 1825 by the Protectors' Insurance Company was also on the house. It is timber framed with whitewashed brick cladding
Barn in the grounds of The Orchard. This was dismantled and now is in Wallis Wood, near Ockley
164 Carpark. In 1919 this was the site of a garage for Claygate Motors managed by R.J. Bevington until the Second World War. The premises were then used for war work, and by the Claygate Auxiliary Fire Service.
Hubbard Combustion Ltd. This firm was on the site from the end of the Second World War and made industrial furnaces. In 1969 the site was sold to Esher Urban District Council for a car park

Oaken Lane
Road which led to clay pits and brickworks, to the north of this square.

Sims Cottages
Pathway between the High Street and The Green, Sims family owned clay pits to the north of the village and associated brickworks.

St. Leonard’s Road
This was once called Red Lane. It was renamed when houses were built here in the early 20th. It was named after Lord St Leonards; he became Lord Chancellor of England in 1852 and in Thames Ditton.
12 Rose Cottage. one of the oldest houses in Claygate built around 1695, as a gamekeeper's cottage on the Couchmore Estate. There is a Royal Exchange fire mark on the front.

Telegraph Lane
This leads uphill to the telegraph tower – in the square to the north,

The Green
This was Claygate Hurst
The Hare and Hounds. This was a pub before 1843, but had originally been a farmhouse.  In 1866 it had a bar as well as stables for six horses, a coach house, barn, skittle alley, sheds and a yard. It was then bought by the Twickenham Brewery from Messrs. Norton. In 1896 the pub was purchased by Brandon’s Putney Brewery and was extensively altered in 1931, In 1959 it was sold to Mann, Crossman and Pauline who have come, following takeovers, Grand Metropolitan
Horse trough outside the Hare and Hounds. Erected in 1911 for the Coronation of King George V.

The Parade
This was originally Station Road.
Claygate Station. Built in 1885 and opened as Claygate and Claremont Station this now lies between Hinchley Wood and Oxshott stations on South Western Rail.  It appears to have kept the original station buildings with little alteration.
Car park. This was the goods yard mainly used for feed stuffs and manure for local farms. The farms also dispatched produce. Coal was handled for the local brickworks as well as for domestic use. The yard closed in 1963.
Platform Three. This is a pub in an old taxi office and is the Brightwater Brewery Tap. It hopes to be the smallest in Great Britain with only room for one or two customers inside. Seating is on the station forecourt under an awning and with a heater.
Brightwater Brewery. Founded in 2012.

Sources
Baker. Industrial Archaeology of Elmbridge
Brightwater Brewery. Web site
British Listed Buildings. Web site
Claygate Parish Council. Web site
Claygate Primary School. Web site
Elmbridge Council. Web site
Foley Hotel. Web site
Hare and Hounds. Web site
Imperial War Museum. Web site
Pevsner. Surrey
Surrey County Council. Web site
The Claygater. Web site
What Pub. Web site
Woodland Trust. Web site

Thursday, 11 January 2018

Clapham South and Balham


Post to the west Wandsworth Common
Post to the south Balham


Balham Hill
Buildings began to be constructed here following on from the development of Clapham in the late 18th.
14 Gateway Hotel  
16 The Avalon. This was previously The George described as ‘spectacularly grotty’. It has since had a makeover. Once a coaching inn it is probably the oldest pub in the area
12 Majestic Wine Warehouse. This is on the site of Balham Odeon which was opened 1938. It was built for and operated by the Oscar Deutsch chain of Odeon Theatres Ltd. and designed by George Coles with a symmetrical streamlined exterior in cream faience and it stood out with a red neon Odeon sign illuminated on both sides and the building outlined in green neon. Inside there was a lavish foyer, 'welcoming' stairs to the circle and cafe with daylight let in to the circle foyer. It closed in 1972 but reopened as the Liberty Cinema in 1974 showing Asian films, and closed again in 1979. The auditorium was demolished but the frontage, rebuilt after a bomb in 1941 has become a shop.
Foyer apartments. Flats were built on the cinema auditorium site, and in the upstairs circle foyer.
Clapham South Station.  Opened in 1926 the station lies Clapham Common and Balham Stations on the Northern Line. It was built by the City and South London Railway. Charles Holden built this series of stations as a unified network and it was designed by S A. Heaps, who was probably responsible for much of the interior detail. Holden designed the chaste stone-faced, stripped classical exteriors with inventive detail and the London Transport signs for capitals. Proposed names for the station were "Balham North" and "Nightingale Lane". In the 1930s flats were added above the station and the parade of shops along Balham Hill was extended as part of the same development using the same style as the original three closest to the station.
Deep Shelter. In 1940s a deep shelter was built by London Transport as agents for Minister of Home Parallel consisting of parallel tunnels on two floors with iron bunks.  There were right angle extensions for first aid, wardens and ventilation and lavatories below street level so sanitation was in hoppers under the works with sleeping accommodation for 1,200 people.  Post-war it was used as temporary hostels - military transit barracks and a Youth hostel for the Festival of Britain.  Intended to be linked after war to a high-speed tube, which was never built.

Broomwood Road
Ash Court. This is on the site of an earlier Methodist Church demolished in 1986. It is a Methodist Housing scheme.
Broomfield Lodge. This was later called Broomwood House, was designed by J.T.Groves and was the home of William Wilberforce. A plaque commemorating Wilberforce is said to be on 111.

Clapham Common
The Common was once known as East Heath and West Heath but was called Clapham Common in the early 18th and is shown as such on the earliest Ordnance Survey maps.  The first coach services in to London in the late 17th crossed the Common and it then became notorious for its highwaymen.
Bandstand. This is thought to be largest bandstand of its type in Britain, It was erected here in 1890, and had been thought to been one of two built in 1861 for the Royal Horticultural Society's South Kensington Gardens. It is however a replica, designed by Thomas Blashill, Architect to the London County Council. Band music was popular in the late 19th and after a residents' petition, in 1889 the London County Council approved a budget for a new bandstand for the here.
Spurgeon's Tree. A poplar on the South Side was so named since a man was killed by lightning sheltering under it in 1859. The next Sunday Spurgeon preached a sermon referring to the incident
Eagle Pond. Named from a nearby house - Eagle House which had stone eagles on gate piers. The pond is used for angling.
Mount Pond. This may be a gravel extraction site. In 1748 Mr Henton Brown of Cavendish House tried to get permission to enclose it, and dig a pond around 1747. The pond is now used for fishing.
The Mount. There is a possibility that this is the site of a windmill. It may also be formed of spoil from the digging of Mount pond. Such viewing mounds were fashionable in the late 18th.

Clapham Common South Side
103 South London Hospital for Women and Children. This was founded as a general hospital for women staffed totally by women by Eleanor Davies-Colley and Maud Chadburn, both surgeons. It was also founded to train women doctors to become specialists.  In 1911 they bought Holland House and Kingston House here and the hospital opened in 1912. Demolition and building work followed and the hospital was officially opened by Queen Mary in 1916 with 80 beds and as a state of the art building. All staff were women. In 1920 Preston House adjacent was purchased for 40 more surgical beds and in 1926 an Out-Patients Department on the site of Kingston House. The hospital continued to expand through the 1930s including a nurses’ home, which was later bombed. The Second World War intervened in the expansion and the Hospital joined the Emergency Medical Service and, following a Special Act of Parliament treated male war casualties.  Buildings in various parts of the country were occupied by the organisation. In 1948 the Hospital joined the NHS and in 1982 The Wandsworth District Health Authority decided it was 'uneconomic' and, despite strong opposition including a petition and occupation of the building by protesters, the Hospital closed in 1984. The site was bought by Tesco with plans to demolish. The original facade of the Hospital was kept which the rest of the building was demolished in 2004. It has been replaced by a supermarket and flats,
Site of Cavendish House.  The home of the noted scientist Henry Cavendish who lived here between 1782 - 1810. He used it as workshops – the dining room was filled with instruments and there was a large library with strict rules. There was an observatory, a forge and wooden staging on the trees.  The builder, Thomas Cubitt and his family lived here 1827 - 1832.  It was demolished in 1905
44 This site is between the Notre Dame Estate and Lambeth College and backs on to Abbeville Road. Originally part of the large gardens of the houses fronting South Side. It was developed during the 1930s by Cleeves, a confectionery manufacturer. After the war Batgers made sweets there and since the 1990s it has provided commercial, warehousing and waste transfer facilities.
Milestone.  This is at the junction of South Side with The Avenue & Cavendish Road. It is probably 18th and gives mileages to Whitehall & Royal Exchange.
Entrance building to deep tube and shelter system. Built as an extension to Clapham South Underground Station in 1940-2 by D C Burn for the Home office. Two main shafts descend from these surface buildings. Some 1940s iron bunks and painted signage remain, along with graffiti from the 1940s and 1950s. They were designed so that they could be used by London Transport after the war as by-pass tunnels, creating a fast non-stop service but this never happened.
45 Lambeth College,   It was formed in 1992 from three former institutions – one of which was the South London College.   A Sixth Form Centre was opened here in 2000 by the College and new buildings erected.
46 Stowey House. Open Air School. Stowey House was a 19th house and the birthplace of Lytton Strachey. In 1920 the London County Council set up an open air school in the grounds. It had 8 classroom pavilions and a structure for folk dancing and corrective exercise.  Children had built much of this themselves and worked in the gardens.  The School featured sun therapy and stripped to shorts or loincloths children sat on an open wooden platform. The School closed in the mid 1960s. Stowey House was demolished in 1967 and the site, along with adjacent South Lodge, was redeveloped for Henry Thornton School, now Lambeth College.
Henry Thornton School. The school was founded in 1894 as "Battersea Polytechnic Secondary School", in Battersea and from 1905 it was a boys' only school. In 1918 it became a London County Council school called "The County Secondary School, Battersea" and 1926 was moved here to South Lodge and named after the leader of the Clapham Sect.  A new school was built, designed by LCC architect George Topham Forrest. In the Second World War pupils were evacuated and the buildings became "South-West London Emergency Secondary School for Boys".  The school became comprehensive in 1968 and was merged with other schools.  South Lodge itself was demolished in the late 1960s and replaced by the comprehensive school buildings fronting South Side In 1986 the school itself moved to Balham and the buildings became the Henry Thornton Centre of Clapham and Balham Adult Education Institute. The 1929 building was demolished in 2003 and the site is now Lambeth College.

Clapham Common West Side
85 Western Lodge. This dates from around 1784 and includes an old coach house. It was home to a series of distinguished residents. Between 1925 and 2012 it was used by the Society for the Relief of the Homeless Poor, since called ‘Western Lodge’ and housing homeless men. The Society moved here from Highbury in 1925 and in 2012 moved to Tooting.
Prefabs. In the Second World War 27 prefabs were built on the Common parallel with Leathwaite Road. The site was returned to grass later

Denning Mews
This is a gated road running parallel between ordinary public roads and is apparently a new development. It is built on the site of a large factory complex facing on to Nightingale Lane

Hazelbourne road
Anchor Mews. New Era Studios on the site of  Anchor  Works,  lithographic printers,

Kyrle Road
Broomwood Methodist Church . Built 1899 in Arts and Crafts style by Rea Macdonald

Malwood Road
23 Church of the Ascension.  Built by Arthur Cawston 1883 – 1890. In 1993 it merged with St. Mark’s Battersea Rise. Inside is a narrow aisle with a tile mosaic and some interesting stained glass.
10 St. Francis Xaviour. Roman Catholic Sixth Forum College. It is on the site of Clapham College which fronted onto Nightingale Lane and opened here in 1985. It takes pupils who are over 16 from local Roman Catholic Secondary Schools.

Nightingale Lane
This was once known as Balham Wood Lane or Balham Lane
3-5 Police Section House, now demolished and replaced by flats
7-11 Oliver House School. Oliver House ‘Preparatory’ School opened in 2004  in two buildings, known as Hollywood and Broadoak. Hollywood was built in 1782 probably by Moses Lopes and was the home of the Harrison family members of the Clapham Sect and later to botanist and pharmacologist, Daniel Hanbury. A mouding of Neptune lies above the Coade stone doorway , Broadoak was in 1875, for the widow of Titus Salt. In 1896 the Xaverian Brothers opened Clapham College here. Broadoak has a porch with an Oliver Plunkett mosaic and the school is now named after him. It is a private fee paying school for boys and girls aged 3-11
7 Clapham College. This opened in 1897 founded by the Xaverian Brothers  a religious order founded in Belgium in 1839 dedicated to the Roman Catholic education of boys.  It was part of a wave of Catholic school building in the late 19th , In 1896 the Brothers bought Broadoak and opned what was partly a boarding school until 1932. It expanded rapidly with the addition of playing fields at Norbury acquired. In 1924 a preparatory department was opened in Hollywood, the adjacent house.  . In the Second World the school was evacuated to East Grinstead and then to Taunton.  On its return to Clapham in 1945 it became a secondary modern School funded by the local authority. Many pupils were from Irish, Italian and Polish families. In the 1950s it became a grammar school but in 1975 it amalgamated with St. Gerard's School to become Clapham College Roman Catholic Comprehensive.  New buildings were added but in 1985 the school moved out and the site became the new Saint Francis Xavier 6th Form College.
45 Audiology House. Villa by George Jennings. Used by P.C.Werth for hearing aids and other audio equipment. The company had had a number of names but appear to have sold this premises following the death of Laurence Werth in 2014.
Mullard Electrical Works. In the Great War Captain Stanley R. Mullard worked for the Admiralty on high vacuum development and supervision of the production of transmitting and receiving valves, In 1920 he established the Mullard Radio Valve Co. Ltd. and moved to Nightingale Lane 1922.  They made transmitting valves and some receiving valves.  Mullard was one of the founders of the British Broadcasting Company Ltd. and there was a much increased demand for valves and in 1924 in order to finance expanded production half the shares in Mullard Radio Valve Co. Ltd were sold to N.V. Philips Gloeilampenfabriken of Eindhoven, Holland.  Mullard was a founder member of the British Radio Valve Association cartel in 1926.  Over the years valve type and design was changed and evolved.  They were to expand greatly from this site includingh major works in the Midlands. By the Second World War this was  Radio Transmission Equipment Ltd. who had also made radio receivers for aircraft. Just inside the factory gates, a large underground room was constructed where vital 'frequency standards' equipment could be kept safe from the Luftwaffe. The site of the factory stretched from Nightingale Lane to Temperley Road.  It has now been redeveloped as a gated housing development.

Ramsden Road
194 St.Luke’s Church. This was built on the site of Old Park House. In 1874, Canon Clarke bought the site from the Simpson family. Initially an iron church was installed here, having been moved from St.Mark’s Battersea.  F. W. Hunt of Upper Baker Street, was appointed as architect, and by 1883 the first section of the Chancel was built and the nave completed by 1888. The church has a red brick Lombard Romanesque exterior while money and gifts were presented for the interior. In 1891 the Parish Hall was enlarged and in 1892 the tower with an open bell-chamber was built and electric Light was also installed. There is a war memorial for victims of the Great War.
St. Luke's Vicarage. Built 1902.

The Avenue
This is the South Circular Road running along the western edges of Clapham Common

Windmill Drive
Windmill Pub. Youngs’ pub with some ‘boutique’rooms. Probably dates from the 1820s but Youngs have had it since 1848.  It is thought there was a real windmill here in the late 17th

Sources
Barton. Lost Rivers of London
Behind Blue Plaques 
Blue Plaque Guide
British Listed Buildings. Web site
Church of the Ascension. Web site
Cinema Treasures. Web site
Clapham Society. Web site
Clunn. The Face of London
Day. London Underground.
Field. London Place Names 
GLIAS Newsletter
Hillman and Trench. London Under London
Lambeth College. Web site
Lambeth Landmark. Web site
London Borough of Lambeth. Web site
London Borough of Wandsworth. Web site
London Encyclopaedia
Lost Hospitals of London. Web site
Mullard History. Web site
Nairn. Modern Buildings
Old Thorntonians. Web site
Pevsner and Cherry South London 
Shady Old Lady. Blog
Smith. Clapham
Smythe. Citywildspace, 
St.Luke’s. Web site
Wandsworth History Journal
Western Lodge. Web site